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0KPYR_HUMAN*   SwissProt (?) | Description Local Annotation Link Reference
General Information
NamePKLR
DescriptionPyruvate kinase, isozymes r/l (ec 2.7.1.40) (r-type/l-type pyruvate kinase) (red cell/liver pyruvate kinase).
SpeciesHomo sapiens (NCBI taxonomy ID: 9606)
GO0004743 pyruvate kinase activity (TAS)
Domain Architecture (Details)
InterPro domains unassigned to SynO:
Pyruvate kinase () (PK) catalyses the final step in glycolysis .he conversion of phosphoenolpyruvate to pyruvate with concomitant phosphorylation of ADP to ATP: ADP + phosphoenolpyruvate = ATP + pyruvate The enzyme.hich is found in all living organisms.equires both magnesium and potassium ions for its activity . In vertebrates.here are four tissue-specific isozymes: L (liver). (red cells).1 (muscle.eart and brain).nd M2 (early foetal tissue). In plants.K exists as cytoplasmic and plastid isozymes.hile most bacteria and lower eukaryotes have one form.xcept in certain bacteria.uch as Escherichia coli.hat have two isozymes. All isozymes appear to be tetramers of identical subunits of ~500 residues.PK helps control the rate of glycolysis.long with phosphofructokinase () and hexokinase (). PK possesses allosteric sites for numerous effectors.et the isozymes respond differently.n keeping with their different tissue distributions . The activity of L-type (liver) PK is increased by fructose-1.-bisphosphate (F1.BP) and lowered by ATP and alanine (gluconeogenic precursor).herefore when glucose levels are high.lycolysis is promoted.nd when levels are low.luconeogenesis is promoted. L-type PK is also hormonally regulated.eing activated by insulin and inhibited by glucagon.hich covalently modifies the PK enzyme. M1-type (muscle.rain) PK is inhibited by ATP.ut F1.BP and alanine have no effect.hich correlates with the function of muscle and brain.s opposed to the liver.The structure of cat muscle pyruvate kinase has been determined . The protein comprises three domains each belonging to the alpha-beta class; one of these adopts a 3-layer(aba) sandwich architecture; the other two form beta-barrels.
  IPR001697:Pyruvate kinase
Pyruvate kinase () (PK) catalyses the conversion of phosphoenolpyruvate to pyruvate with the concomitant synthesis of ATP as the final step in glycolysis in both prokaryotes and eukaryotes . PK is a homotetramer.ach subunit consisting of four domains: a small N-terminal helical domain (absent in bacterial PK).n A domain with (beta/alpha)8-barrel topology. B domain with a beta-barrel topology.nd which is inserted within the A domain.nd a C-terminal with alpha/beta topology. This entry represents the B domain.The B domain of PK has structural similarity with the N-terminal domain of ATP sulphurylase (ATPS).hich consists of an incomplete 6-stranded beta-barrel.here the last PK strand is absent. ATPSs are ubiquitous enzymes that catalyse the primary step of intracellular sulphate activation .
  IPR011037:Pyruvate kinase, beta-barrel-like
IPR001697:PK 
Evalue:-269.148742675781 
Location:85-438IPR001697:PK_C 
Evalue:-73.7447280883789 
Location:452-572
SequencesProtein: KPYR_HUMAN (574 aa)
mRNA: NM_000298
Local Annotation
Synapse Ontology
Calcium release from RyR (Ryanodine Receptor) in the SR (Sarcoplasmic Reticulum) is activated by the calcium induced-calcium-release
sdb:0325 RyR-CICR  (Evidence:keywords)
KO assignmentK00873
  Level 3 annotation:
    pyruvate kinase
  Level 2 annotation:
    Glycolysis / Gluconeogenesis
    Pyruvate metabolism
    Carbon fixation
    Purine metabolism
    Insulin signaling pathway
    Type II diabetes mellitus
Loci Structure (Details)Loci index, Chromosomal location, Length, Possible relational loci clusterExon1: 281 residues, 153526253-153527093Exon2: 62 residues, 153528170-153528352Exon3: 57 residues, 153529591-153529758Exon4: 53 residues, 153529852-153530005Exon5: 52 residues, 153530649-153530800Exon6: 92 residues, 153530896-153531167Exon7: 64 residues, 153531530-153531717Exon8: 46 residues, 153531851-153531983Exon9: 32 residues, 153532079-153532171Exon10: 63 residues, 153536512-153536695Exon11: 43 residues, 153537710-153537835Exon12: 2 residues, -Jump to KPYR_HUMAN  
Tune and view alternative isoforms
Loci Cluster (Details)Loci: 3833 152220753-152225430 ~-5K 2681(RAB13)(-)Loci: 2551 152511662-152514973 ~-3K 2706(HAX1)(+)Loci: 2552 152806880-152815707 ~-9K 2720(CHRNB2)(+)Loci: 3834 152821158-152847306 ~-26K 2722(ADAR)(-)Loci: 3835 153201398-153209847 ~-8K 2739(SHC1)(-)Loci: 2553 153412983-153424069 ~-11K 2783(TRIM46)(+)Loci: 2554 153513997-153526262 ~-12K 2831(HCN3)(+)Loci: 3836 153526253-153537835 ~-12K 2833(PKLR)(-)Loci: 2555 153669594-153670676 ~-1K 2846(POU5FLC1)(+)Loci: 2556 154095923-154121459 ~-26K 2875(SYT11)(+)Loci: 3837 154183269-154214942 ~-32K 2882(ARHGEF2)(-)Loci: 2557 154297589-154306917 ~-9K 2890(RAB25)(+)Loci: 2558 154362603-154374280 ~-12K 2897(+)Loci: 2559 154855709-154862142 ~-6K 2944(HAPLN2)(+)Loci: 2560 154878363-154895942 ~-18K 2945(BCAN)(+)Loci: 3838 154905181-154913813 ~-9K 2947(NES)(-)Loci: 2561 155097294-155118266 ~-21K 2961(NTRK1)(+)Loci: 3839 155171256-155281786 ~-111K 2965(ARHGEF11)(-)Loci: 2550 151897823-151900928 ~-3K 2658(SNAPAP)(+)Link out to UCSC