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0GNAL_HUMAN*   SwissProt (?) | Description Local Annotation Link Reference
General Information
NameGNAL
DescriptionGuanine nucleotide-binding protein g(olf), alpha subunit (adenylate cyclase-stimulating g alpha protein, olfactory type).
SpeciesHomo sapiens (NCBI taxonomy ID: 9606)
GO0003924 GTPase activity (TAS)
0007165 signal transduction (TAS)

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schematic display of those terms with internal associations, click the node and browse the corresponding GO term
Domain Architecture (Details)
InterPro domains unassigned to SynO:
Guanine nucleotide binding proteins (G proteins) are membrane-associated.eterotrimeric proteins composed of three subunits: alpha ().eta () and gamma () . G proteins and their receptors (GPCRs) form one of the most prevalent signalling systems in mammalian cells.egulating systems as diverse as sensory perception.ell growth and hormonal regulation . At the cell surface.he binding of ligands such as hormones and neurotransmitters to a GPCR activates the receptor by causing a conformational change.hich in turn activates the bound G protein on the intracellular-side of the membrane. The activated receptor promotes the exchange of bound GDP for GTP on the G protein alpha subunit. GTP binding changes the conformation of switch regions within the alpha subunit.hich allows the bound trimeric G protein (inactive) to be released from the receptor.nd to dissociate into active alpha subunit (GTP-bound) and beta/gamma dimer. The alpha subunit and the beta/gamma dimer go on to activate distinct downstream effectors.uch as adenylyl cyclase.hosphodiesterases.hospholipase C.nd ion channels. These effectors in turn regulate the intracellular concentrations of secondary messengers.uch as cAMP.iacylglycerol.odium or calcium cations.hich ultimately lead to a physiological response.sually via the downstream regulation of gene transcription. The cycle is completed by the hydrolysis of alpha subunit-bound GTP to GDP.esulting in the re-association of the alpha and beta/gamma subunits and their binding to the receptor.hich terminates the signal . The length of the G protein signal is controlled by the duration of the GTP-bound alpha subunit.hich can be regulated by RGS (regulator of G protein signalling) proteins () or by covalent modifications .There are several isoforms of each subunit.any of which have splice variants.hich together can make up hundreds of combinations of G proteins. The specific combination of subunits in heterotrimeric G proteins affects not only which receptor it can bind to.ut also which downstream target is affected.roviding the means to target specific physiological processes in response to specific external stimuli . G proteins carry lipid modifications on one or more of their subunits to target them to the plasma membrane and to contribute to protein interactions.This family consists of the G protein alpha subunit.hich acts as a weak GTPase. G protein classes are defined based on the sequence and function of their alpha subunits.hich in mammals fall into four main categories: G(S)alpha.(Q)alpha.(I)alpha and G(12)alpha; there are also fungal and plant classes of alpha subunits. The alpha subunit consists of two domains: a GTP-binding domain and a helical insertion domain (). The GTP-binding domain is homologous to Ras-like small GTPases.nd includes switch regions I and II.hich change conformation during activation. The switch regions are loops of alpha-helices with conformations sensitive to guanine nucleotides. The helical insertion domain is inserted into the GTP-binding domain before switch region I and is unique to heterotrimeric G proteins. This helical insertion domain functions to sequester the guanine nucleotide at the interface with the GTP-binding domain and must be displaced to enable nucleotide dissociation.
  IPR001019:Guanine nucleotide binding protein (G-protein), alpha subunit
Guanine nucleotide binding proteins (G proteins) are membrane-associated.eterotrimeric proteins composed of three subunits: alpha ().eta () and gamma () . G proteins and their receptors (GPCRs) form one of the most prevalent signalling systems in mammalian cells.egulating systems as diverse as sensory perception.ell growth and hormonal regulation . At the cell surface.he binding of ligands such as hormones and neurotransmitters to a GPCR activates the receptor by causing a conformational change.hich in turn activates the bound G protein on the intracellular-side of the membrane. The activated receptor promotes the exchange of bound GDP for GTP on the G protein alpha subunit. GTP binding changes the conformation of switch regions within the alpha subunit.hich allows the bound trimeric G protein (inactive) to be released from the receptor.nd to dissociate into active alpha subunit (GTP-bound) and beta/gamma dimer. The alpha subunit and the beta/gamma dimer go on to activate distinct downstream effectors.uch as adenylyl cyclase.hosphodiesterases.hospholipase C.nd ion channels. These effectors in turn regulate the intracellular concentrations of secondary messengers.uch as cAMP.iacylglycerol.odium or calcium cations.hich ultimately lead to a physiological response.sually via the downstream regulation of gene transcription. The cycle is completed by the hydrolysis of alpha subunit-bound GTP to GDP.esulting in the re-association of the alpha and beta/gamma subunits and their binding to the receptor.hich terminates the signal . The length of the G protein signal is controlled by the duration of the GTP-bound alpha subunit.hich can be regulated by RGS (regulator of G protein signalling) proteins () or by covalent modifications .There are several isoforms of each subunit.any of which have splice variants.hich together can make up hundreds of combinations of G proteins. The specific combination of subunits in heterotrimeric G proteins affects not only which receptor it can bind to.ut also which downstream target is affected.roviding the means to target specific physiological processes in response to specific external stimuli . G proteins carry lipid modifications on one or more of their subunits to target them to the plasma membrane and to contribute to protein interactions.This family consists of the S class (stimulatory) G protein alpha subunit (G(S)alpha).hich transduces signals from various cell surface receptors to the cAMP-generating enzyme adenylyl cyclase. The G(S)alpha subunit is encoded by GNAS. complex imprinted gene that uses multiple promoters to generate several gene products. G(S)alpha is imprinted in a tissue-specific manner.nd is expressed primarily from the maternal allele in renal proximal tubules.hyroid.ituitary and ovary . Several disease states are linked to the G(S) alpha subunit.ncluding McCune-Albright syndrome.seudohypoparathyroidism.denomas.estotoxicosis and the action of cholera toxin. Alpha-olf is a specialised form of G(S)alpha expressed in olfactory neuroepithelial cells.rain and pancreas. In addition to its interaction with adenylyl cyclase.(S)alpha also activates ion channels.uch as atrial voltage gated sodium channels and dihydropyridine-sensitive calcium channels in skeletal muscle.
  IPR000367:G-protein alpha subunit, group S
Guanine nucleotide binding proteins (G proteins) are membrane-associated.eterotrimeric proteins composed of three subunits: alpha ().eta () and gamma () . G proteins act as signal transducers.elaying a signal from a ligand-activated GPCR (G protein-coupled receptor) to an enzyme or ion channel effector. The activated GPCR promotes the exchange of GDP for GTP on the G protein alpha subunit.llowing the trimeric G protein to be released from the receptor and to dissociate into active (GTP-bound) alpha subunit and beta/gamma dimer.oth of which activate distinct downstream effectors. There are several isoforms of each subunit.hich together can makeup hundreds of combinations of G proteins.ach one linking a specific receptor to a certain effector.The heterotrimeric G protein alpha subunit is composed of two domains: a GTP-binding domain and a helical insertion domain. The GTP-binding domain is homologous to Ras-like small GTPases.nd includes switch regions I and II.hich change conformation during activation. The helical insertion domain is inserted into the GTP-binding domain before switch region I.nd is unique to heterotrimeric G proteins. This helical insertion domain functions to sequester the guanine nucleotide at the interface with the GTP-binding domain and must be displaced to enable nucleotide dissociation . This entry represents the G protein alpha subunit helical insertion domain.
  IPR011025:G protein alpha subunit, helical insertion
IPR001019:G-alpha 
Evalue:-218.638275146484 
Location:15-380
SequencesProtein: GNAL_HUMAN (381 aa)
mRNA: NM_002071
Local Annotation
Synapse Ontology
?
sdb:0328 transmitters release and endocytosis  (Evidence:keywords)
KO assignmentK04633
  Level 3 annotation:
    guanine nucleotide binding protein (G protein), alpha polypeptide, olfactory type
  Level 2 annotation:
    Calcium signaling pathway
    G-protein coupled receptors
    GTP-binding proteins
Loci Structure (Details)Loci index, Chromosomal location, Length, Possible relational loci clusterExon1: 131 residues, 11742185-11742577Exon2: 26 residues, 11742851-11742924Exon3: 20 residues, 11743626-11743681Exon4: 42 residues, 11743824-11743944Exon5: 34 residues, 11814916-11815014Exon6: 20 residues, 11852393-11852448Exon7: 26 residues, 11854531-11854605Exon8: 21 residues, 11857166-11857225Exon9: 42 residues, 11858541-11858662Exon10: 45 residues, 11862266-11862397Exon11: 24 residues, 11866619-11866687Exon12: 281 residues, 11870987-11871825Exon13: 2 residues, -Jump to GNAL_HUMANExon1: 424 residues, 11841425-11842696Exon2: 2 residues, -Jump to CHM1B_HUMANExon1: 354 residues, 11841466-11842527Exon2: 2 residues, -Jump to CHM1B_HUMAN  
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