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0GGA2_HUMAN*   SwissProt (?) | Description Local Annotation Link Reference
General Information
DescriptionAdp-ribosylation factor binding protein gga2 (golgi-localized, gamma ear-containing, arf-binding protein 2) (gamma-adaptin-related protein 2) (vhs domain and ear domain of gamma-adaptin) (vear).
SpeciesHomo sapiens (NCBI taxonomy ID: 9606)
GO0005802 Golgi trans face (IDA)
0030306 ADP-ribosylation factor binding (IDA)
0005515 protein binding (IPI)
0006886 intracellular protein transport (NAS)

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schematic display of those terms with internal associations, click the node and browse the corresponding GO term
Domain Architecture (Details)
InterPro domains unassigned to SynO:
The GAT domain is responsible for binding of GGA proteins to several members of the ARF family including ARF1 and ARF3. The GAT domain stabilizes membrane bound ARF1 in its GTP bound state.y interfering with GAP proteins .
Adaptins are components of the adaptor complexes which link clathrin to receptors in coated vesicles. Clathrin-associated protein complexes are believed to interact with the cytoplasmic tails of membrane proteins.eading to their selection and concentration. Gamma-adaptin is a subunit of the golgi adaptor. Alpha adaptin is a heterotetramer that regulates clathrin-bud formation. The carboxyl-terminal appendage of the alpha subunit regulates translocation of endocytic accessory proteins to the bud site. This Ig-fold domain is found in alpha.eta and gamma adaptins and consists of a beta-sandwich containing 7 strands in 2 beta-sheets in a greek-key topology . The adaptor appendage contains an additional N-terminal strand.
  IPR008152:Alpha/gamma adaptin, C-terminal
The VHS domain is a ~140 residues long domain.hose name is derivedfrom its occurrence in and STAM. Based on regions surrounding the domain.HS-proteins can be divided into 4 groups : STAM/EAST/Hbp which all share the domain composition VHS-SH3-ITAM and carry one or two ubiquitin-interacting motifs Proteins with a FYVE domain () C-terminal to VHS which also carry one or two ubiquitin-interacting motifs GGA proteins with a domain composition VHS-GAT (GGA and Tom1) homology domain VHS domain alone or in combination with domains other than those listed above The VHS domain is always found at the N-terminus of proteins suggesting that such topology is important for function. The domain is considered to have a general membrane targeting/cargo recognition role in vesicular trafficking .Resolution of the crystal structure of the VHS domain of Drosophila Hrs andhuman Tom1 revealed that it consists of eight helices arranged in a double-layer superhelix. The existence of conserved patches of residues on the domain surface suggests that VHS domains may be involved in protein-protein recognition and docking. Overall.equence similarity is low (approx 25%) amongst domain family members
The adaptor proteins AP-1 and GGA (Golgi-localized.amma ear-containing.DP-ribosylation factor (ARF)-binding proteins) regulate membrane traffic betweenthe trans-Golgi network (TGN) and endosome/lysosomes through ARF-regulatedmembrane association.ecognition of sorting signals.nd recruitment ofclathrin and accessory proteins . The gamma-adaptin ear (GAE) domain is a C-terminal appendage or ear of about 120 residues.hich is found in gamma-adaptins.he heavy subunits of the AP-1 complex.nd in GGAs. The GAE domain.hich is found in associated with other domains such as VHS.oiled-coils and GAT.s involved in the recruitment of accessory proteins.uch as gamma-synergin.ababptin-5.ps15 and cyclin G-associated kinase.hich modulate the functions of GAE domain containing proteins in the membranetrafficking events .The resolution of the 3D-structure of the human gamma-adaptin GAE domain showsthat it forms an immunoglobulin-like beta-sandwich fold composed of eightbeta-strands.ade up of a five-stranded beta-sheet and a three-stranded beta-sheet.ith two short alpha-helices. The topology ofthe entire GAE domain is similar to those of the N-terminal subdomains in thealpha- and beta-adaptin ear domains of the AP-2 complex. However.he GAEdomain has very low sequence identity and homology to the N-terminalimmunoglobulin-like subdomains of the alpha and beta ear domains. The bindingsite for the accessory proteins has been located to a shallow hydrophobictrough surrounded by charged (mainly basic) residues .
  IPR008153:Gamma-adaptin, C-terminal
The epsin NH2-terminal homology (ENTH) domain () is a membrane interacting module composed of a superhelix of alpha-helices. It is present at the NH2-terminus of proteins that often contain consensus sequences for binding to clathrin coat components and their accessory factors.nd therefore function as endocytic adaptors. ENTH domain containing proteins have additional roles in signalling and actin regulation and may have yet other actions in the nucleus. The ENTH domain is structurally similar to the VHS domain. The ENTH domain is approximately 150 amino acids long. The ENTH domain forms a compact globular structure.omposed of eight alpha-helices connected by loops of varying length. Three helical hairpins that are stacked consecutively with a right-handed twist determine the general topology of the domain. This stacking gives the ENTH domain a rectangular appearance when viewed face on. The most highly conserved amino acids fall roughly into two classes: internal residues that are involved in packing and therefore are necessary for structural integrity.nd solvent accessible residues that may be involved in protein-protein interactions . VHS domains are found at the N-termini of select proteins involved in intracellular membrane trafficking. The domain consists of eight helices arranged in a superhelix. The surface of the domain has two main features: a basic patch on one side due to several conserved positively charged residues on helix 3 and a negatively charged ridge on the opposite side.ormed by residues on helix 2. Comparison of the two VHS domains and the ENTH domain reveals a conserved surface.omposed of helices 2 and 4.hat is utilized for protein-protein interactions. In addition.HS domain-containing proteins are also often localized to membranes. It has therefore been suggested that the conserved positively charged surface of helix 3 in VHS and ENTH domains plays a role in membrane binding .The SSF signature in this entry is currently under review. Please be aware that some of the protein hits may be false positives.
SequencesProtein: GGA2_HUMAN (613 aa)
mRNA: NM_015044
Local Annotation
Synapse Ontology
endosome of the presynaptic compartment. A cellular structure that is involved in the transport of proteins in the neuron after the proteins are endocytosed from the outside to the inside of the cell.
sdb:0088 endosome  (Evidence:keywords)
KO assignmentNot mapped to KEGG
Loci Structure (Details)Loci index, Chromosomal location, Length, Possible relational loci clusterExon1: 1127 residues, 23383144-23386522Exon2: 39 residues, 23387707-23387818Exon3: 58 residues, 23388817-23388987Exon4: 54 residues, 23393725-23393883Exon5: 46 residues, 23397189-23397323Exon6: 11 residues, 23397704-23397733Exon7: 43 residues, 23398586-23398709Exon8: 44 residues, 23399466-23399592Exon9: 29 residues, 23401744-23401826Exon10: 48 residues, 23404836-23404974Exon11: 29 residues, 23405531-23405612Exon12: 36 residues, 23407427-23407531Exon13: 43 residues, 23410498-23410622Exon14: 35 residues, 23412181-23412280Exon15: 27 residues, 23413124-23413200Exon16: 30 residues, 23414515-23414600Exon17: 57 residues, 23429142-23429309Exon18: 2 residues, -Jump to GGA2_HUMAN  
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Loci Cluster (Details)Loci: 2928 23221140-23300117 ~-79K 13712(SCNN1B)(+)Loci: 4213 23383144-23429309 ~-46K 13715(GGA2)(-)Loci: 2927 23101540-23135701 ~-34K 13711(SCNN1G)(+)Link out to UCSC