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0A4_HUMAN*   SwissProt (?) | Description Local Annotation Link Reference
General Information
NameAPP
DescriptionAmyloid beta a4 protein precursor (app) (abpp) (alzheimer's disease amyloid protein) (cerebral vascular amyloid peptide) (cvap) (protease nexin-ii) (pn-ii) (appi) (prea4) .
SpeciesHomo sapiens (NCBI taxonomy ID: 9606)
GO0009986 cell surface (IDA)
0005576 extracellular region (TAS)
0005887 integral to plasma membrane (TAS)
0005515 protein binding (IPI)
0004867 serine-type endopeptidase inhibitor activity (IDA)
0006878 copper ion homeostasis (TAS)
0050905 neuromuscular physiological process (NAS)

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schematic display of those terms with internal associations, click the node and browse the corresponding GO term
Domain Architecture (Details)
InterPro domains unassigned to SynO:
Amyloidogenic glycoprotein (A4 protein or APP) is an integral.lycosylated membrane brain protein . APP is associated with Alzheimers disease (AD). This responsibility stems from the fact that a small peptide (of 43 residues).alled the amyloid beta protein.hich is part of the sequence of A4.s the major constituent of amyloid deposits in AD and in Downs syndrome. As shown in the schematic representation below.he amyloid beta protein both precedes and forms part of the unique transmembrane region of A4.The exact function of A4 protein is not yet known.ut it has been suggested that it mediates cell-cell interactions .
  IPR008154:Amyloid A4 extracellular region
The majority of the sequences having this domain belong to the MEROPS inhibitor family I2.lan IB; the Kunitz/bovine pancreatic trypsin inhibitor family.hey inhibit proteases of the S1 family and are restricted to the metazoa with a single exception: Amsacta moorei entomopoxvirus. They are short (~50 residue)alpha/beta proteins with few secondary structures. The fold is constrainedby 3 disulphide bonds. The type example for this family is aprotinin (bovine pancreatic trypsin inhibitor) (or basic protease inhibitor).ut the family includes numerous other members such as snake venom basic protease; mammalian inter-alpha-trypsininhibitors; trypstatin. rat mast cell inhibitor of trypsin; a domainfound in an alternatively-spliced form of Alzheimers amyloid beta-protein;domains at the C-termini of the alpha(1) and alpha(3) chains of type VIIand type VI collagens; and tissue factor pathway inhibitor precursor.
  IPR002223:Proteinase inhibitor I2, Kunitz metazoa
Beta-amyloid protein (beta-APP) is a 40-residue peptide implicated in the pathogenesis of Alzheimers disease (AD) and aged Downs Syndrome (which is promoted by the acquisition of an additional copy of chromosome 21) . The peptide is a proteolytic product of the much larger amyloid precursor protein (APP) encoded by a gene on chromosome 21. The protein comprises a large extracellular N-terminal domain.nd a short hydrophobic membrane-spanning domain.ollowed by a short C-terminal region. Beta-APP both precedes and forms part of the transmembrane region. In AD.athologically the brain is characterised by extracellular amyloid plaques.ntraneuronal neurofibrillary tangles.nd vascular and neuronal damage. The major protein found within these deposits is a small.ighly aggregating peptide (beta-APP).hich is thought to be derived from aberrant catabolism of its precursor.
  IPR013803:Beta-amyloid peptide
Amyloidogenic glycoprotein (A4 protein or APP) is an integral.lycosylated membrane brain protein . APP is associated with Alzheimers disease (AD). This responsibility stems from the fact that a small peptide (of 43 residues).alled the amyloid beta protein.hich is part of the sequence of A4.s the major constituent of amyloid deposits in AD and in Downs syndrome. As shown in the schematic representation below.he amyloid beta protein both precedes and forms part of the unique transmembrane region of A4.The exact function of A4 protein is not yet known.ut it has been suggested that it mediates cell-cell interactions .
  IPR008155:Amyloidogenic glycoprotein
IPR008154:A4_EXTRA 
Evalue:-131.795883178711 
Location:24-188IPR002223:Kunitz_BPTI 
Evalue:-26.6989707946777 
Location:290-342IPR013803:Beta-APP 
Evalue:-26.32790184021 
Location:675-713IPR008155:AMYLOIDA4 
Evalue:0 
Location:382-405IPR008155:AMYLOIDA4 
Evalue:0 
Location:745-767
SequencesProtein: A4_HUMAN (770 aa)
mRNA: NM_000484
Local Annotation
Synapse Ontology
introduce the substructure of the synapse and the location where the molecule can be seen. It will contain all the constructive special organelle and molecule we known.
sdb:0001 Structure/Biochemistry of synapse  (Evidence:keywords)
transport of vesicles in the presynaptic neuron
sdb:0017 Mobilization: synapsins, CAM kinase I  (Evidence:keywords)
The directed movement of substances, either within a vesicle or in the vesicle membrane, into, out of or within a cell.
sdb:0057 axon transport  (Evidence:keywords)
microtubules of the presynaptic compartment function as the tracks for the intense traffic of organelles from cell body to axon terminals and vice versa. It is generally excluded from the presynaptic vesicle cluster.Microtubules do not directly regulate synapse morphology or function
sdb:0087 microtubules  (Evidence:keywords)
endosome of the presynaptic compartment. A cellular structure that is involved in the transport of proteins in the neuron after the proteins are endocytosed from the outside to the inside of the cell.
sdb:0088 endosome  (Evidence:keywords)
the clathrin located in the surface of the endocytotic intermediate.
sdb:0115 clathrin-coated pit  (Evidence:keywords)
The Myelin Sheath of a neuron consists of fat-containing cells that insulate the axon from electrical activity. This insulation acts to increase the rate of transmission of signals. A gap exists between each myelin sheath cell along the axon. Since fat inhibits the propagation of electricity, the signals jump from one gap to the next.
sdb:0224 AP propagation through axon process  (Evidence:keywords)
endocytosis may be initiated or blocked by all kinds of signal.
sdb:0257 regulation of endocytosis  (Evidence:keywords)
all the components of the clathrin coat, major ones are clathrin and clathrin adaptors.
sdb:0261 clathrin coat component  (Evidence:keywords)
Microglias, one kind of glias in CNS, are responsible for removing most of the waste and cellular debris from the CNS
sdb:0267 removing metabolic mass  (Evidence:keywords)
?
sdb:0329 actin in synaptic vesicle cycling  (Evidence:keywords)
KO assignmentK04520
  Level 3 annotation:
    amyloid beta (A4) precursor protein (protease nexin-II, Alzheimer disease)
  Level 2 annotation:
    Proteoglycans
    Alzheimer's disease
Loci Structure (Details)Loci index, Chromosomal location, Length, Possible relational loci clusterExon1: 408 residues, 26174732-26175953Exon2: 51 residues, 26185904-26186051Exon3: 35 residues, 26191755-26191856Exon4: 20 residues, 26199206-26199260Exon5: 76 residues, 26205923-26206145Exon6: 35 residues, 26248774-26248874Exon7: 45 residues, 26249811-26249940Exon8: 55 residues, 26269253-26269412Exon9: 27 residues, 26270137-26270212Exon10: 46 residues, 26276527-26276661Exon11: 21 residues, 26291545-26291602Exon12: 58 residues, 26294200-26294368Exon13: 69 residues, 26316026-26316229Exon14: 66 residues, 26345186-26345380Exon15: 39 residues, 26347422-26347535Exon16: 45 residues, 26384129-26384259Exon17: 58 residues, 26406166-26406334Exon18: 85 residues, 26464752-26465003Exon19: 2 residues, -Jump to A4_HUMAN  
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